Problem 5 – Hint 2

The satellite can receive only heat, and the only thing which can convert heat to electrical energy is a heat engine – not necessarily based on Carnot’ cycle. However, due to the second law of thermodynamics, whatever is inside the satellite, it cannot convert heat into electrical energy more efficiently than an ideal heat engine.

Please submit the solution to this problem via e-mail to The next hint for the Problem 5 will be published at 13:00 GMT, 17th April 2022, together with the next updates of the intermediate results.